The system was designed to evoke affective responses by the users, in this case children, and has been evaluated with children in June The evaluation results show that empathic interactions were achieved with synthetic characters. The effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems, for instance on-line learning systems, can be improved when the learner's emotions are taken into account. A necessary condition for this is that the system will be able to recognize the learner's current emotional state. The authors Mohammed A. Razek, Soumaya Chaffar, Claude Frasson and Magalie Ochs present an extremely simple method that can be used for determining emotional state, the Emotion Recognition Agent ERA , which is devoted to exploit the natural relation between emotions and colors.
Based on the ordered choice of colors the ERA system determines someone's emotion with Therefore, our system can be seen as a first step towards realizing online tutoring systems that are emotionally intelligent and can use this ability for the sake of improved learning efficiency. In their paper A Framework for Emotional Agents as Tutoring Entities, the authors Bogdan Florin Marin, Axel Hunger and Stefan Werner show how they integrate agent technology to support collaborative learning in distributed environments.
The aim of their research is to provide the first steps in defining a method for creating a believable tutor agent which can partially replace human teachers and assist the students in the process of learning. The authors postulate that the application of emotional animated agents in online learning environments as a tutoring paradigm can be beneficial and increase the learners' motivation.
The prototype agent is able to display emotions by means of synthetic speech, facial display and gestures. Verbal and non-verbal behavior is synthesized in the agent's mental model and interpreted in a learning-session. In the paper the authors also discuss the premises under which emotional agents can be pedagogically effective as tutors in a collaborative learning environment. Cyrus F. Nourani addresses affective computing with a new haptic computing logic.
From our published perspective we are where the objects are described with languages as Frege intended, modeled by structures, which can be examined by Kant's transcendental Idealism, and their computability and reducibility areas Hilbert arithmetized. The argument for game-based learning GBL has stagnated. The justification for introducing games into the classroom has not developed in over 30 years. However, the introduction of digital game-based learning is not merely a change of gaming platform, but a significant advancement in learning technology. The two-way interaction between game and student provides unique paralinguistic communication, allowing the game to potentially react to a player's emotional state.
With learning being so dependant upon the student's emotions, affective gaming could herald a revolutionary step in the delivery of education. The article looks at non educational digital games as learning and teaching environments that may provide helpful suggestions for the design of digital educational games. It suggests to use a three dimensional theoretical framework to identify didactic methods in digital games situational, temporal and social dimension and uses this framework to give a brief outline of didactic methods in commercial digital games today.
After that it compares these methods with the use of didactic methods in common digital educational games today.
It is known that puzzle games, such as Tetris, enhance the player's cognitive abilities, but today's students opt for more action filled games such as first person shooters or role playing games. Recent research suggests that some commercial computer games increase cognitive skills and may enhance the participants ability to learn. However, it appears that it is not attributed to the gameplay of such games, but to the immersive environment created by the realism and the intense situation that the player experiences.
This article suggests that these facets found in commercial games should be embraced by educators and supplement the learning environment of today's digitally literate students. What is a Game Ego or How the embodied mind plays a role in computer game environments addresses questions concerning why and how a computer game player identifies her or himself with a Game Ego in computer game environments.
The theoretical framework used to address these questions is drawn mainly from three fields of research: film theory including theories on narration and narratives theories on visual perception which are also applicable to sound and finally experientialist cognitive theory. The central claims of this paper are: the process of identification with a manifestation of a Game Ego has a bodily basis.
The human conceptual system shows a relationship to the motor system of the human body and is tightly connected to the emotional system so that no clear-cut boundary can be drawn between them. The more direct and immediate the control of this agent is, the stronger the identification is as well.
Computer games are considered as powerful tools to learning and they have a potential for educational use. As educators and trainers continue to turn to technology, they are constantly seeking to find ways to make interventions quicker, better, and cheaper. This case study looks at using an off-the-shelf commercial computer game, Age of Empires II, as a simulation to facilitate learning Multimedia Production Management.
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Age of Empires II was not created for this purpose. The possibilities of implementing a structure—mapping elements of the game to elements in real-life—are explored. The participants of this case study felt that the intervention helped them learn elements of Multimedia Production Management. The recently established 'serious games initiative' promotes and explores the use of the concepts and technologies of the entertainment, video-gaming and e-learning industries for serious purposes, i.
SIM MV2 is an animated and network based simulation game commissioned by the Port of Rotterdam to explore and support the planning and design of its second harbour area 2nd Maasvlakte. In the past, formal models of cognitive psychology successfully contributed to the development of computerized adaptive tutorial systems. Emotional and motivational aspects, however, were rarely considered, although a variety of studies demonstrated their significant influence on learning and performance. The aim of the current pilot study was to investigate whether the sound and empirically valid knowledge space theory is able to cover learning and performance in two different motivational states, which were hope for success and fear of failure.
Moreover, within a factorial design these motivational states were combined with two different learning conditions. Pre-structured learning sessions within an adaptive tutorial system were contrasted with rather free text-based learning.
In this chapter, we describe a non-commercial, web-based communication platform which we have called an Interactive Dictionary of Concepts. Retrieval is also supported through the use of search engines such as Google in combination with special identification headers. The Dictionary is still in a developmental stage. It responds to the challenge issued by Calhoun by offering a set of conceptual and software tools designed to overcome the interactional limitations of conventional course design often implemented in management systems such as WebCT despite the wider potential offered by their innate structural flexibility.
Typically, these courses limit communication possibilities by being structured around objectives which pre-determine the relevance of the interactions which they generate. On the other hand, in the Interactive Dictionary of Concepts, the objectives which motivate its design do not exert such a limiting function. On the contrary, the relevance of the interactions which they generate is a function of the impact that the entries in the Dictionary have on subsequent interactions which they inform.
In other words, their relevance is in the communication which they help to establish between their own terms and those which inform other contexts. The structure of the Dictionary has no other purpose but to facilitate the flow between different terms or concepts. It does so with tools designed to prevent compartmentalisation of interests, thus enabling and facilitating a dialogue across different groups and beliefs.
In turn, this allows individuals and groups to expand and, as a result, to reformulate the terms which form and inform their criteria of judgment. Thus the structure of the Dictionary generates conditions which enable communication or dialogue to flow where it would otherwise have stopped when concepts reflect opinions, rather than being the product of a methodology which requires systematised reflection. The Dictionary can be thought of as a framework supporting and generating production and investigation of critically-informed entries on all kinds of issues of interest, each sourced in different perspectives and none exhausting them.
Entries are organised according to a specific framework which is common to all entries. This shared framework then forms a structure which links the independently produced entries and relevant information together, thus effectively creating from these entries a single, large potentially infinite text produced by many, for many, and on issues whose relevance to others can emerge in serendipitous and unpredictable ways through use of the search facilities of the Dictionary.
Thus the Dictionary has the potential to store a conceptual history of the ideas of individuals or groups from all over the world, systematised and made available in the form of searchable entries. In this perspective, the structure of the Dictionary was not conceptualised as a way of improving the affective and emotional aspects of human-computer interaction as such.
Instead, we made it our priority to utilise the exploratory potential of its tools to enhance the quality of the interactions of humans, thus enhancing the process by which individuals and groups feel and become integrated with one another. In turn, this form of integration develops individuals' and groups' emotive links with each other by facilitating the process of conceptual and emotional advancement raised by Calhoun.
Moreover, the framework of the Dictionary enables and supports varied forms of engagement which help to develop, in individuals, a heightened sense of the value of their own contributions to the community. Thus the potential of the Interactive Dictionary of Concepts is multiple. It functions as a platform which generates dialogue and, therefore, as a system which can assist individuals or groups in their task of investigating issues of concern.
Further, the interactions which it generates and accumulates can support different projects, unpredictable in form, which share a concern for a dialogic mode of inquiry. The Interactive Dictionary of Concepts is also a management structure which provides an extremely flexible system for storing and retrieving its concepts and relevant information.
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Moreover, the search categories of the Dictionary function as tools in support of a critical analysis of texts, and is particularly useful in the process of reading and writing. Overall, the structure of the Interactive Dictionary of Concepts helps us to create an environment which is thoroughly organic, i. In this chapter, we will discuss the intellectual framework behind the structure of the Dictionary, its potential educational applications and discuss the analytical and systematising capacity of its tools against practical examples of the entry-like texts created by students of Thai and English, and by the author, while experimenting with the tools and the concept of critical inquiry which informs them.
For some, the quest for new knowledge is an inherent pastime. Previously, much of what humans learnt was handed down by previous generations. The tools by which this knowledge transfer took place limited to a human-to-human context; where speech and drawings provided the transmission of ideas. However, the implementation of electro-communication tools through the internet is bringing about a global anthropological revolution in human knowledge transfer. Web-based technologies have promoted the concept of learning partnerships and lifelong learning , with interest in globalised learning communities gaining momentum .
Although there is an expectation that lifelong learning will extend, in a natural sense, into the broader community, thereby promoting learning societies, the current tools are not effectively reaching key sectors of the community such as the special education arena . Furthermore, little is known about the interactive effect of cognitive development and Web-mediated multimedia instruction on performance outcomes in the education and training sectors .
This Chapter will discuss a project underway linking Japan and Australia in an intergenerational cross-cultural study. The project is designed to investigate attitudinal changes amongst young children, undergraduate students, and senior citizens, in both synchronous and asynchronous learning environments when engaged in Web-mediated collaborative knowledge sharing activities.
It is widely discussed that products should provide more qualities than just providing the right functionality being useful and giving access to it being easy to use. Hassenzahl  postulated that users perceive pragmatic and hedonic qualities when using an interactive product.